Freitag, 24. September 2021

Frank Griffel: Die Herausbildung der post-klassischen Philosophie im Islam

Frank Griffel: 
The Formation of
Post-Classical Philosophy
in Islam

Oxford University Press
2021, 664 pp.

ISBN: 978-0190886325

Frank Griffel - more >>>

Editor's Information

Scholars have come to recognize the importance of classical Islamic philosophy both in its own right and in its preservation of and engagement with Greek philosophical ideas. At the same time, the period immediately following the so-called classical era has been considered a sort of dark age, in which Islamic thought entered a long decline. In this monumental new work, Frank Griffel seeks to overturn this conventional wisdom, arguing that what he calls the “post-classical” period has been unjustly maligned and neglected by previous generations of scholars.

The Formation of Post-Classical Philosophy in Islam is a comprehensive study of the far-reaching changes that led to a re-shaping of the philosophical discourse in Islam during the twelfth century. Earlier Western scholars thought that Islam’s engagement with the tradition of Greek philosophy ended during that century. More recent analyses suggest that Islamic thinkers instead integrated Greek thought into the genre of rationalist Muslim theology (kalām). Griffel argues that even this new view misses a key point. In addition to the integration of Greek ideas into kalām, Muslim theologians picked up the discourse of classical philosophy in Islam (falsafa) and began to produce books in the tradition of Plato, Aristotle, and Avicenna—a new and oft-misunderstood genre they called “.hikma“—in which they left aside theological concerns. They wrote in both genres, kalām and .hikma, and the same writers argued for opposing teachings on the nature of God, the world’s creation, and the afterlife depending on the genre in which they were writing. Griffel shows how careful attention to genre demonstrates both the coherence and ambiguity of this new philosophical approach.

A work of extraordinary breadth and depth, The Formation of Post-Classical Philosophy in Islam offers a detailed, insightful history of philosophy in Iraq, Iran, and Central Asia during the twelfth century. It will be essential reading for anyone interested in the history of philosophy or the history of Islam.

Table of Contents

Part One: Post-Classical Philosophy In Its Islamic Context

First Chapter: Khorasan, the Birthplace of Post-Classical Philosophy: A Country in Decline?
The madrasa System
The Cities of Khorasan and Its Surrounding Provinces
The First Half of the Sixth/Twelfth Century: Seljuq Rule
The Second Half of the Sixth/Twelfth Century: Khwrazmshahs and Ghurids
Other Patrons: Qarakhanids, the Caliphal Court in Baghdad, and the Ayyubids in Syria

Second Chapter: The Death of as a Self-Description of Philosophy
Falsafa as a Quasi-Religious Movement Established by Uncritical Emulation (taqlid)
Falsafa As Part of the History of the World's Religions
Three Different Concepts of Philosophy in Islam
Hikma as the New Technical Term Form

Third Chapter: Philosophy and the Power of the Religious Law
The Legal Background of al-Ghazali fatwa on the Last Page of His Tahfut al-falsifa
Persecution of Philosophers in the Sixth/Twelfth century
'Ayn al-Qudat's Execution 525/1131 in Hamadan
Shihbab al-Din Yahya al-Suhrawardi's Execution 587/1191 in Aleppo
Was al-Ghazali's fatwa? Ever Applied?

Part Two: Philosophers and Philosophies – A Biographical History of Philosophy in the Sixth/Twelfth Century Islamic East
The Principal Sources for Sixth/Twelfth Century History of Philosophy in the Islamic East
The Early Sixth/Twelfth Century: Avicennism Undisturbed
Avicennism Contested: The Early Decades of the Sixth/Twelfth Century
The Outsider as Innovator: Abu l-Barakat al-Baghdadi (d. c. 560/1165)
Two Ghazalians of Transoxania: al-Mas' udi and Ibn Ghaylan al-Balkhi (d. c. 585/1190)
Majd al-Din al-Jili - Teacher of Two Influential Philosophers Trained In Maragha
Al-Suhrawardi (d. c. 587/1192), the Founder of the "School of Illumination"
Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (d. 606/1210) - Post-Classical Philosophy Fully Developed

Part Three: The Formation of Hikma As a New Philosophical Genre
First Chapter: Books and Their Teachings

Al-Razi's "Philosophical Books" (kutub hikmiyya)
What Books of hikma Do: Reporting Avicenna

First Perspective: Teachings on Epistemology
What Books in hikma Also Do: Doubting and Critizising Avicenna
Knowledge as Relation: The Starting Point in al-Ghazali
Knowledge as Relation: Abu l-Barakat al-Baghdadi's Key Contribution
Knowledge as Relation: Developments in the Second Half
of the Sixth/Twelfth Century
Second Perspective: Teachings on Ontology and Theology
A New Place for the Study of Metaphysics Within Philosophy
Opposing Avicenna: God's Essence is Distinct From His Existence
What Books of hikma Mostly Do: Endorsing and Correcting
Avicennan Philosophy

Second Chapter: Books and Their Genre
The Eclectic Career of al-Ghazali's Doctrines of the Philosophers
(Maqasid al-falasifa)
Al-Ghazali as Clandestine faylasuf- Evaluating His Madnun Corpus
The Madnun-Corpus and Forgery-Two Pseudo-Epigraphies Attached to al-Ghazali
Between Neutral Report and Committed Investment: al-Mas 'udi's Commentary
on Avicenna's Glistering Homily (al-Khutba al-gharra)
Post-classical Philosophy and Tolerance For Ambiguity

Third Chapter: Books and Their Method
Dialectical Reasoning Replaces Demonstration: "Careful Consideration" (i'tibar)
in Abu l-Barakat al-Baghdadi
The Middle Way Between Avicennism and Ghazalism: How
Fakhr al-Din al-Razi Describes His Philosophy
Fakhr al-Din al-Razi's Method of "Probing and Dividing" (sabr wa-taqsim)
A Case Study of the New Method: Al-Razi on God's Knowledge of Particulars
The Method in Books of hikma: Implementing the Principle of Sufficient Reason
The Method in Books of kalam: Limiting the Principle of Sufficient Reason

Conclusions --- Bibliography --- Appendices

>>> Contents / Inhaltsverzeichnis (über >>>
>>> Weiterführendes:
        Islamische Philosophie und Theologie:
        Rationalität und Aufklärung

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